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Science at St Michael's Academy

"We are all scientists."
IMG_2875Robot day

Science strand progression


Lower KS2 

Upper KS2 









To ask relevant questions and suggest a test that could answer them 

To set up simple practical enquiries 

To ask testable questions, using different types of scientific enquiry to answer them 

To set up simple comparative and fair test 

To plan different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions including recognising and controlling variables where necessary 

To explain which variables are being controlled in a test and why 


Observing / obtaining evidence 

To make careful observations, taking accurate measurements 

To make systematic observations, taking accurate measurements using a range of equipment (including digital) 

To take measurements using a range of scientific equipment with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings where necessary 


To understand what measurements should be taken, for how long and whether they should be repeated 


To present data in a variety of ways 

To record findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, bar charts and tables 

To record data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagram and labels, classification keys, tables and bar graphs 

To use more complex tables, scatter graphs and line graphs to record information 



To use results to draw simple conclusions 

To use results to draw simple conclusions, suggest improvements and raise further questions 

To use test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests 

To look for causal relationships in data and identify evidence that supports or refutes their ideas 


To report on findings explaining results and conclusions 

To produce written, oral or presentations of findings 

To use primary and secondary sources of information to support a scientific idea 

To evaluate data, showing awareness of potential errors 


Lower KS2 


Pupils should be taught to: 


Pupils should be taught to: 



•   identify and describe the functions of different parts of flowering plants: roots, stem/trunk, leaves and flowers  

•  explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant  

•   investigate the way in which water is transported within plants. 

• explore the  part that flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal. 


Animals including humans 

•   identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat  

•   identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement. 

•   describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans  

•   identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions.   

• construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey 

Living things and their habitats 


•   recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways  

•   explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment  

•   recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.  



•   compare and group together different kinds of rocks on the basis of their appearance and simple physical properties  

•   describe in simple terms how fossils are formed when things that have lived are trapped within rock  

•   recognise that soils are made from rocks and organic matter. 


States of Matter 


•  compare and group materials together, according to whether they are 

solids, liquids or gases  

•   observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)  

•   identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature 



•   recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of light  

•   notice that light is reflected from surfaces  

•   recognise that light from the sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect their eyes  

•   recognise that shadows are formed when the light from a light source is blocked by a solid object  

•   find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change.  




•   identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating  

•   recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear  

•   find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it  

•   find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it  

•   recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases.  

Forces and Magnets 

•   compare how things move on different surfaces 

•   notice that some forces need contact between two objects but magnetic forces can act at a distance  

•   observe how magnets attract or repel each other and attract some materials and not others.  

•   compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials 

• describe magnets as having two poles 

• predict whether two magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are facing.  




•   identify common appliances that run on electricity 

•   construct a simple series electrical circuit identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers 

•  identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery 

•   recognise that  a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit 

•  recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors   


Upper KS2 




Animals including humans 

• describe the changes as humans develop to old age 





•  identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood 

•  recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function 

•  describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans 

Living things and their habitats 

•  describe the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird 

•  describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals  

•  describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including  micro-organisms, plants and animals 

•  give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics  

Evolution and inheritance 


•  recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide information about living things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago 

•  recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents        

•  identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution  


Properties and changes of materials 

•   compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets  

•   know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution  

•   use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating  

•   give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic  

•   demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes  

•   explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda.  






• recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines  

• use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye  

• explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes  

• use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them.  



•   associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit  

•   compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches.  

• use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram. 


•   explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object.  

•   identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces 

•  recognise that some mechanisms, including levers, pulleys and gears, allow a smaller force to have a greater effect.  


Earth and Space 

•  describe the movement of the Earth, and other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system 

•  describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth 

•  describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies 

•  use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night and that apparent movement of the sun across the sky. 


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